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International Journal of Cardiology Sciences

Vol. 6, Issue 1, Part A (2024)

Emerging therapeutic strategies in heart failure management: A narrative review of current evidence and future directions

Author(s):

Dr. Mahak Agarwal and Dr. Snehal Ninaji Pakhare

Abstract:

Heart failure (HF) represents a critical, progressively worsening global health issue, impacting millions and stemming from a myriad of etiological factors including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular heart diseases, and various cardiomyopathies. As a syndrome marked by the heart's diminished capacity to pump sufficient blood to meet the body's needs, HF manifests through severe symptoms, recurrent hospitalizations, and elevated mortality rates. Traditional therapeutic strategies have predominantly aimed at symptom mitigation, fluid overload reduction, and improving cardiac output through a regimen of pharmacologic agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, and diuretics, supplemented by device-oriented interventions like implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Despite these interventions, the inexorable advance of HF poses a relentless challenge, driven by complex processes like neurohormonal activation, cardiac fibrosis, and cellular remodeling. Recent endeavors in the field have been directed towards unveiling innovative therapeutic strategies that confront these foundational mechanisms head-on. Notably, the advent of gene therapy and cutting-edge gene-editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9, shines a light on the possibility of amending genetic aberrations implicated in HF. Moreover, the sphere of regenerative medicine, with its focus on stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, emerges as a beacon of hope for regenerating damaged myocardium and reinstating cardiac function. The push towards precision medicine further exemplifies the shift towards customizing HF treatment based on individual patient characteristics, incorporating genetic, biomarker, and comorbidity profiles. The integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning into HF care is revolutionizing the development of predictive models, risk stratification, and tailored treatment plans. This narrative review delves into the latest breakthroughs in HF therapy, spotlighting their revolutionary potential to transform HF management by addressing the disease's root causes. Through this exploration, our aim is to offer an extensive overview of the changing landscape in HF treatment, inspiring optimism among patients and healthcare professionals for a future with more effective HF management strategies.

Pages: 32-38  |  216 Views  148 Downloads


International Journal of Cardiology Sciences
How to cite this article:
Dr. Mahak Agarwal and Dr. Snehal Ninaji Pakhare. Emerging therapeutic strategies in heart failure management: A narrative review of current evidence and future directions. Int. J. Cardiol. Sci. 2024;6(1):32-38. DOI: 10.33545/26649020.2024.v6.i1a.47